Financial Statements: Balance, Income, Cash Flow, and Equity

Below is a portion of ExxonMobil Corporation’s (XOM) balance sheet for fiscal year 2021, reported as of Dec. 31, 2021. Shares and debentures of various companies are traded through a stock exchange. The bank always considers the security of the loan given to the business concern. In other words, the entity is expected to pay or be willing to pay back the debt within one year. Yet, they normally report the different line between the cost of goods sold and general and administrative expenses. For example, salaries payable are classed as current liabilities because they are expected to pay an employee in the following month.

  • Some of the current assets are just moved from one accounting item to another.
  • It calculates net income by subtracting expenses and losses from revenues and gains.
  • The statements must be prepared and presented in a true and fair view concerning the acceptable financial reporting framework and the law.
  • Shareholder equity is the money attributable to the owners of a business or its shareholders.

For example, revenue for a florist is the sale proceeds from selling flowers. For a bank, revenue is the interest income that it earns by lending money to its clients. Revenue for a travel agency is the commission it makes from booking flights and tours. Assets include physical properties such as machinery and buildings as well as monetary possessions such as cash and receivables. Assets are the resources that are owned or controlled by the business to receive something of value in the future.

A cash flow statement is part of the three financial documents that businesses pull together every year—sometimes annually, sometimes quarterly. The cash flow statement shows the exact amount of a business’s cash inflow and outflow over a specific period of time. A P&L statement is different in that it provides an overview of your company’s total income and total expenses over that period of time. Companies use the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement to manage the operations of their business and to provide transparency to their stakeholders.

Objective of financial statements

A balance sheet shows a snapshot of a company’s assets, liabilities and shareholders’ equity at the end of the reporting period. It does not show the flows into and out of the accounts during the master budget period. An often less utilized financial statement, a statement of comprehensive income summarizes standard net income while also incorporating changes in other comprehensive income (OCI).

Several techniques are commonly used as part of financial statement analysis. Three of the most important techniques are horizontal analysis, vertical analysis, and ratio analysis. Horizontal analysis compares data horizontally, by analyzing values of line items across two or more years. Vertical analysis looks at the vertical effects that line items have on other parts of the business and the business’s proportions. Ratio analysis uses important ratio metrics to calculate statistical relationships. All items of income and expense recognised in a period must be included in profit or loss unless a Standard or an Interpretation requires otherwise.

To calculate EPS, you take the total net income and divide it by the number of outstanding shares of the company. The next line is money the company doesn’t expect to collect on certain sales. This could be due, for example, to sales discounts or merchandise returns. Qualitative Characteristics of Accounting Information; examines the characteristics that make accounting formation useful.

Understanding Financial Statements

In other words, fixed assets are the resources based on nature converted into cash or cash equivalent in more than one year accounting period. Current assets generally have a useful life in less than 12 months from the ending date of the reporting period. It is assumed that the entity could use or convert the current assets into cash in less than 12 months. Your financial statements help you assess your business’s financial health, and there are a few red flags that can indicate trouble. Learning to spot these red flags early on can help you make smarter financial decisions for your business. If you identify an error or discrepancy in your financial statements, take the time to revise your accounting procedures.

IFRS Practice Statement ‘Making Materiality Judgements’

The correct order of financial statements is the income statement, statement of change in equity, statement of financial position, and statement of cash flow. Financial statement analysis evaluates a company’s performance or value through a company’s balance sheet, income statement, or statement of cash flows. By using a number of techniques, such as horizontal, vertical, or ratio analysis, investors may develop a more nuanced picture of a company’s financial profile. The cash flow statement provides an overview of the company’s cash flows from operating activities, investing activities, and financing activities. Net income is carried over to the cash flow statement, where it is included as the top line item for operating activities.


Revenue has the effect of increasing the amount of profit and net assets of the business. Revenue is the increase in net assets arising from the principal activities of the business. Assets also include prepayments and advances that entitle a business to receive a service or product in the future. For example, if a business pays an agency in advance for creating an ad for its upcoming marketing campaign, it is considered an asset of the business as it will entitle it to receive the advert in the future.

The values of securities of a business concern are fixed upon the basis of its financial statements. In the present day, the cash flow statement is considered an important part of financial statements. Incorporate business organizations, preparation of cash flow statement is mandatory. Basically, if the income statement and balance sheet are correctly prepared, the statement of change in equity would be corrected too. A statement of change inequity is one financial statement that shows the shareholder contribution and movement in equity. It is different from the income statement since the balance sheet reports the account’s balance at the reporting date.

Some liabilities are considered off the balance sheet, meaning they do not appear on the balance sheet. A liability is any money that a company owes to outside parties, from bills it has to pay to suppliers to interest on bonds issued to creditors to rent, utilities and salaries. Current liabilities are due within one year and are listed in order of their due date. Long-term liabilities, on the other hand, are due at any point after one year. Current liabilities are obligations a company expects to pay off within the year.

Effects of Price Changes on Financial Statements

For example, users could the cash movement that the company use for purchasing PPE. The net income or loss of the company record in the income statement during the period will be added to the opening balance of retained earnings or accumulated loss. Otherwise called as notes to accounts, these are supporting notes annexed to any of the above statements. It provides additional information about the company’s operations and finance. These five financial statements could produce five types of financial statements for the entity’s stakeholders using.

Interest income is the money companies make from keeping their cash in interest-bearing savings accounts, money market funds and the like. On the other hand, interest expense is the money companies paid in interest for money they borrow. Some income statements show interest income and interest expense separately. The interest income and expense are then added or subtracted from the operating profits to arrive at operating profit before income tax. At the top of the income statement is the total amount of money brought in from sales of products or services.

Operating expenses can include things like rent, payroll, utilities, business supplies, and any other indirect costs that are needed to stay up and running. These are the direct expenses your business has incurred in order to produce products or deliver business services to your customers. Also known as COGS, it includes costs related to direct labor and materials costs, shipping and delivery fees, or things like production costs.